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Multi Criss Cross

Multi Criss Cross





Taught by

Professor Emman Osakwe

B.Sc. (Nig), M.Ed. (Philadelphia), MA (London) Ph.D (Ibadan)

Professor Social Sciences and Dean of the Graduate School,

Delta State University, Abraka.

On Thursday, 26 February 2009

© Copyright 2009 Delta State University, Abraka

All rights reserved

No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or by any means, photocopying, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of the copyright owners.

ISBN 978-33872 – 7-4

Published February 2009 by



Printed by

Justice and Jeco Press Ltd. Publishers,

Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

Prologue / Preface

This processing is Maestro + teacher … + Celebrity, Will Become Nigeria

(A Love Song for my husband and the New Nigeria)

And he said, "Marry me, May!"

"I do such a thing: to marry any teacher," said May

Slag Professions: Professor – disqualified

However, more significant and persistent voice in the classroom! – Qualified

This teacher now processed, is a teacher, prophet and priest.

Palm oil, the broom and sponge, Banga soup – processed palm

Through the fire, through water, the sharp blade, the agents of decay – processed

As kero, diesel, gasoline, cream, gel, this balm – processed crude

Emman Osakwe, master processing, a voice is heard beyond

Beyond the rostrum to the nations.

Made through pain deprivation, denial, then mocked,

Today's teacher is mounted the podium, here comes:

My husband, my director, mon pere

Processed by the fire, through water, denied rightful

This master of the primary teachers of teachers

It is a teacher, teaching teachers teacher educators.

The climb to peaks refused for ten years!

My fellow parents, persevering through the years!

As diamond carbon processed, my prince patient and peace-maker

This teacher Renowned Main:

Intellectual and divine, has a message:

Nigeria is processing through the shame –

The shame of corruption, greed, like serious!

The shame of mismanagement and bad governance

Misrule, yielding poverty giant height of opulence

Shame monumental waste of resources

The shame of evil and religious impiety

Prosecution shame on our reputation for desired:

Our country famous, yes our country;

Land of my birth, the land of my pain, the land of my shame

Land of his birth, the land of their pain, the land of your shame

Depending too long after independence, fragile the marsh

For this fragile marsh, about to fall, unable to fly,

It will become a great eagle in flight

Celebrities poultry, not to fly, but soar to –

Land of my birth, the land of his birth, the land of our birth

Land of my fame, land of your fame, land of our reputation –

Nigeria is the name!

Mabel Osakwe Ejima (2009)

President, English Language

Delta State University, Abraka


The Vice-Chancellor,

The Vice Chancellor (Admin.)

The Vice-Chancellor (Academic)

The provosts, Asaba and Oleh Campus,

The Acting Secretary,

The Bursar,

The University Librarian,

The Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences,

Dean of the Faculty of Education,

Deans of Faculties Others

Teachers and other members of the Senate

Heads of Department and other academic colleagues,

The administrative staff and technical

My Lords Spiritual and Temporal,

Members of my family, nuclear and extended,

My in-laws,

Distinguished guest

Lords of the Press


Ladies and Gentlemen:


I feel very honored and privileged to be called to deliver the inaugural Lesson 17 Delta State University, Abraka. I thank God for giving mercy trip this meeting and I think that will take us all home safely in the name of Jesus – Amen.

Did you buy and read today's press? How listen mind many bloody stories? What is the last on the militancy and criminality in the Niger Delta? What a pain! You may want to take depressive mind these issues and feed your mind with great Obama dream come true and so ours. Yes, welcome to this forum! For this God who gives us the opportunity to reflect and debate social issues similar to those raised in this advice welcome. Sorry to tell you if I have the monopoly on the word in this debate is why we called a conference. But free your mind to travel along, as the pilots of Social Studies our navigation through the shame of Fame today for tomorrow.


The first thing to pay attention to the nature and purpose of Social Sciences and the way it serves vehicle to address the issues of our time. Briefly, social studies is to learn to live and participate in this world, in a certain time and place, hence we have the formula:


P = People

S = Society

P = place

t = time

This conference will be a keynote speech on an aspect of my academic experience, and my contribution to social studies as a field of knowledge, is governed by the formula as shown SSE and the nature of Social Studies.

Here then, P means The People of Nigeria; S means the Nigerian society, p, the entity yt geographical Nigeria in Nigeria called yesterday today and tomorrow. At this conference, Nigeria yesterday involves pre-colonial Nigeria in the era before the Second Republic, while Nigeria today that extends the second period of the Republic to date.

We recognize that this hearing is not only interdisciplinary, "Clothing" but also a diverse "city." Then be sought to operate within this defined perimeter.

Social concerns all facets of human existence: man himself as a product of nature and social man as a product of upbringing, from the social, political, economic and physical. Social studies has therefore for some time as a real instrument or reshapening towards society. (Lawton and Durfour 1973, Osakwe 1993) Nature, content and scope of social studies, it is a manly instrument to develop a new socio – political. This teacher has professed mostly in this area of social studies and has 20 publications related to the current discourse. Four of these are listed here:

Osakwe, EO (1992) "Social Studies and the military in Nigerian politics "Nigeria Journal of Social Sciences Review Vol 2, No 2, pp. 89-91

Osakwe, OE (1993a) Education for Citizenship: The Centre for Social Studies Review Nigerian Journal of Social Studies. Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 23-38.

Osakwe, EO (1994) education for citizenship in a multiethnic society: some teaching ideas. Studies in Education vol. 2. No. 1. April. Pp 60-64.

Osakwe, EO (1994b) Pedagogical Strategies for Teaching Social Studies: The use of specimens and Issues Nigeria Social Studies Journal Vol III, No. 1 and 2 pp. 49-55.

In Nigeria, Social Studies found practical expression in the school system after the 1969 National Curriculum Conference. The theme is intended for individuals for construction and therefore the nation-building (Osakwe 1993). Potential of Social Studies are not yet fully exploited in our search for a desirable socio-political and economic.

Social Studies deals with human relationships. The world is constantly undergoing changes and social studies remains a veritable tool for examining these changes, whether positive or negative. Social Studies focuses on human beings (people) anything that strikes them.

Areas of Emphasis in Social Sciences

The knowledge included in the Social Sciences is related with important generalizations about human relationships, institutions and problems, along with actions to ensure that these generalizations are poorly understood (and Osakwe Itedjere 1993). Social Sciences examines the issues and a holistic perspective – in consequence, to solve a problem or an issue, social studies examines the historical aspects, cultural, sociological, economic, physical and others. Unlike the vertical concentration is evident in tracks school, social studies adopting a horizontal approach to spiral in the IT problem analysis. Social Sciences, has strong affinity with the social sciences, but should not be seen as an amalgam of the social sciences.

Social Studies Education is a way to give young people a sense of hope in the future and trust in their ability to solve social and environmental problems of the people, their community, state or nation.

On this occasion, the conference deals with one aspect of my discipline that is academic and public interest – Explore the nation, through the shame of Fame today for tomorrow: Social As pilot studies.

Addressing the problems of yesterday, today and tomorrow automatically provides three segments of the speech: Nigeria Today Nigeria Today and Tomorrow Nigeria.


It is simplistic to address the problems of nation building in Nigeria today without paying due attention to our past and the past world affecting our past and present.

Mr. Vice-Chancellor, Sir, the education system we have inherited from our colonial masters, but criticized for alienating us from our culture, produced disciplined individuals and peoples who are regarded as pillars of our democracy and national development. Our education system was once very structured, organized and predictable. This was the time when education was fully responsible Agencies of the Government or the Mission. Educational institutions were adequately staffed, equipment and supervision was effective. The academic calendar was stable almost without interruption. A new competitor in the system was able to predict when he / she will graduate. Graduation is not a candidate at the right time was not the fault of the school or institution, but the inability of students to work hard enough to graduate as planned by the educational establishment. The period under review was characterized by students in elementary and secondary schools in uniforms that were in fact making uniforms. There was no provision for students make their own seats or desks for guests, offering their own beds. The laboratories of secondary and tertiary institutions are comparable with those obtained in other around the world.

sound moral education was an essential part of education in pre 1970 to the late 80's Nigeria. Relationship between students and teachers students and teachers and students and teachers from different levels of education has been largely professional. Examination malpractice incidents were rare and those who are caught in the integrity of the examinations was treated quickly. Incidents of students in grades negotiating with their teachers or professors / teachers call "incentives" were almost nonexistent. During the period under review, the academic conditions at the universities of the first generation of Nigeria was commendable and comparable to that obtained in the most advanced countries of Europe and America. This period witnessed massive exchange of staff from universities abroad. Our universities have orientation international real reputation, staff and students who come from different parts of the world. Apart from the international vocation of our universities and academic university teachers were highly respected and are at the apex of social classification. Okech (2008) rightly pointed out that the mention of the title "Professor" attracted much attention. The office of the Vice-Chancellor was highly reverred. The Vice-Chancellor was more respected than any government appointee.

Most Nigerians who passed through the tertiary education enjoyed a form of financial assistance or other government. Education is a worthwhile undertaking and was seen as key that opened the door to success and fame.

The laziness, theft, prostitution, ostentatious living, greed, oppression, social inequality and space is considered extremely shameful past in Nigeria. It was common practice, for example, for the seller to leave the newspapers in goal as students were trusted to release the money and pick up the papers. Similarly, the product of Cloth days were used for charity as expected. Social Vices are frowned and there was a greater sense of responsibility among citizens including public officials. The workers reported their jobs at the expected time and remained at work until closing. School and other institutional doors were closed at 8 am and remained so until closing. Truancy is an aberration and something seriously frowned brow. It was not the freedom of political association, despite the political divisions along the three main ethnic groups, except for the Belt Medium that had its own political identity. It was possible that close relatives belonging to different political parties and yet still live in harmony. The example the Ikokus can attest to this fact – that a father and son belonged to two opposing parties.

Human beings are political animals in general. The ability of organizing people into political groups with which reason is a basic instinct of the human. Nigerians are very eloquent political beings. It is the practice of traditional politics and the community that has always been with us. There has been a fusion of traditional and modern social life and party politics. Since culture is not static, traditional practices is also adjusted to accommodate new challenges and developments, including cultural contacts with their consequences concomitants. The social life of a people and its political culture, largely in other fields of life. Nigeria is an amalgam of politicians. This is indicative of the plurality cultural development. By far, the North was more politically articulate and responsive. This probably accounts for the practice where our brothers North is always on the radio and listen to local and international news, which always informed. Social life and party politics is not a function of education Western. Some southerners, despite their level of education, are still politically naive and can not read or understand the political horizon. Nigeria economy during this period was very stable and depended on agriculture. This was the era of the pyramids of groundnuts. Nigeria is the largest producer of peanuts, rubber, oil palm kernels, soybeans, Benise and also a major cotton producer, second largest producer of cocoa. It was during this time that Malaysia came to Nigeria to get our oil and rubber plants to try in your country. We know that both countries are now in the production of palm oil and rubber.

Solid minerals such as coal, tin and columbite are mined economic quantities and Nigeria was known to be a major player in the world in the production of these minerals. The dynamism of the economy was boosted further with the discovery of black gold (oil) in Nigeria. Little by little, began to shift emphasis from agriculture to oil … … …. the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. The Nigerian currency was strong and highly sought after during this period.

Exchange rate between 70 and 80

German American British Nigeria

Stg pd U.S. N1 $ 3.64 DM

  1. £ 0615 $ 1.51

The above figures show a vivid picture of the strength of the Naira at this time.

Nigeria is well served by road, rail, air from the sea. During this period there were over 95,000 km of paved roads and over 3,200 km of railways gauge of a meter. Nigeria had only two international airports in Lagos and Kano. Both northern and southern parts of the country attracted significant investment in developing infrastructure, especially in rail and roads, as well as some social services such as electricity, water supply, hospitals, schools and universities. This period was marked by the staff of the Public Works Department (PWD) to compensate for the grass by the side of the road to ensure long distance and clear vision of drivers and other users. Roads are maintained regularly – but then the roads were narrow and sometimes wind, were passable throughout the year.

Nigeria Airways was the pride of West Africa. It rose above other airlines in the sub-region. Nigerian pilots were renowned for their courtesy, competence and confidence. His take-off and landing was remarkable and smooth and hiccups. Nigeria airways constantly flew Europe, Asia, USA and several African trades without blemish. The DC-10s, Boeing 737, 707 and 747 were constant on international routes, while smaller aircraft served the local (domestic) routes. Closer to home here, the waterway through Sapele to Obiaruku Ethiopian river was navigable and building materials were transported through of that channel.

Security of lives and properties was largely secured during this period. You can travel through the night without fear of robbers. Night travel was preferred by a number of Nigerians. Incidents of armed robbery was rare and it was easy to track criminals. It was not fashionable to engage in crime because there was a general rejection of the company or reluctance to anyone who knew it was a criminal or social deviant.


Currently, Nigeria has traded his dignity the values of diligence, patriotism, high ethical standards, its abundance of natural resources once for habits inglorious colloquially referred to as the "Nigerian factor": the search for the injustice, up the values, endemic corruption and gross misrule. Today Nigeria is fatally ill deliberately self-inflicted injury. Most of what is happening today in Nigeria amounts to the national shame, our pain and misfortune. The shame is manifest in our "new politics" which is marked by violence leading to loss of lives and properties, massive rigging and murder. Beneficiaries who do not deserve to rush to make efforts to convince and confuse the masses in support of the results of his political feats. Almost immediately rushed back from all over the country, especially some Christian and Islamic clerics and other leaders who pontificate on selfish fallacy that government and leadership are chosen and ordained by God and that we accept things as they are to save our nascent democracy. But peace without justice can withstand the test of time and is an invitation to anarchy.

Unlike what obtains in Western democracies and other political stable election results were declared within 24 hours on the closing of the polls in Nigeria, it could take three days. In some ridiculous situations, such as elections premises that are even smaller geographical entities for the management, it is still a matter of days before results are officially released. This habit of dragging leaves room for manipulation and panel-beating numbers. Despite all these, the figures are released as ridiculous results. In some cases, more votes than the number of registered voters. multiple voting is not uncommon. The court ruling Edo State revealed that fictitious voters voted and some others voted several times as it is supposed voters across the Atlantic.

The foundation of any democratic state is stable and functional electoral process. This should be seen as a key issue in a country like ours. The electoral process is a political choice by the people. Next to market gossip and discussions of the corridor, the vote is the only activity that shows the degree of popular participation in politics. When free and secret ballot voting, direction and amount of participation individual out boldly in its true form.

In a survey conducted by the professor in 1998, the degree of apathy was expressed by young people surprising.

possible percentage participation in national elections

S / NO






Indifferent or undecided





Yes or interested





No or not interested




This was almost a decade before the 2007 elections monumental fraud, however, the figure reveals high level of alienation or disenchantment with politics and the electoral process among youth. In most cases, this alienation or apathy leads to high level political disinterest. Effective public participation depends on a knowledge of how the system really works.

Citizens have not been systematically exposed to the methods operations of our political system. A number of our young people have been left to wander aimlessly in the political arena in Nigeria. This has led to misinformation or the stifling of the political instincts of young people to national affairs.

Our electoral process and the attendant protest is unmatched results in the annals of elections anywhere in the world. Many Nigerians are of the opinion that an individual vote does not count – that the results are predetermined. This has led to apathy and despair by a serious segment of the electorate (see Osakwe 1998 Ogini 2008). On June 12, 1993 elections, to be tried without case was overturned with ignomity to the chagrin of Nigerians. Since then, the situation has worsened. It is incomprehensible that now a lot of cynicism toward elections and the electoral process by several Nigerians.

Another concern in this discourse is that politics in Nigeria is no longer considered as a way for the service, but has become a channel for promotion to quick wealth and public recognition. This has led to the emergence of political newcomers in the expectation twisted minds of the electorate policy. Their lifestyle is marked by the extravagant lifestyle, luxury cars, including armored vehicles, escorts with sirens and intimidation of opponents and those who perceive who refuse to acknowledge his new position and wealth are found to be unwieldy. What we're witnessing now is a repetition of the biblical saga Amman Mordecai. Haman, a political newcomer who is paid a huge sum of money to ensure that the entire Jewish race is eliminated only because Mordecai the Jew will not bow him.

It is a sign of political immaturity try to use political opportunism to settle accounts. It's a show of shame and reflection combat a complex. The policy should be a very exciting part of our national life, but is now a matter of life and death, sometimes send chills the spine of the population. Therefore, the organization or conduct of the elections in Nigeria is the war and the lives of several went to the elections in Nigeria.

Political Assassinations

Between 1999 and 2009, 39 cases of politically – motivated murders were recorded in the country. The timing of these reveals that murder is usually more frequent in the years before proper elections and election year. For example, there were 17 murder cases between 2002 and 2003 9 cases were recorded between 2005 and 2007 (another pre-election and election period).

Political Assassinations – 1999-2009 (- a graphical representation)

In the most recent elections in Nigeria, weapons fire were used freely. Jos crisis in November / December 2008, more than 500 lives were lost in the chaos that lost the election. Several of the hospitalized were victims of gunshot wounds. How does this compare with what obtains in other parts of the world, where election results are respected and the electoral process is carried out in an orderly manner?

A common feature of the political terrain in Nigeria is the issue of recycling of individuals and families – giving the impression that there is some eternal mandate that these individuals and families should always be there. How do you explain a situation in which some political actors who were Wise contemporary Late Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, continue walking through the corridors of power. There are some individuals who have remained in political flirtations over 29 years of military rule in the democratic era in Nigeria. What a pity that almost two years after the 2007 general elections, but there are still several-to-be-resolved court cases.

It is a fact that since the controversial elections, Nigerians for various initiatives, have joined in the search for a reform process water tree in a transparent, free and fair elections in order to remove the rancor that greeted the results of the April 2007 polls, and literally created hatred and anarchy.

How long will Nigerians living with this level of rancor and uncertainty? When transparent elections be conducted so that the final loser is still quick to concede defeat and congratulate the winner? In U.S. elections on November 4, 2008, presidential candidate Republican John McCain graciously granted the victory to Democratic presidential candidate, Barack Obama, in less than 24 hours after the election. The winner and loser American elections do not have to wait for the election chief to announce the outcome of the election result most famous in the world. Relying on the results as announced live on Cable News Network (CNN).

It is instructive to note here that the national television of Nigeria, Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) had a live coverage of the U.S. election. Why was not possible to meet our national elections in vivo. Some international observers were denied entry and reports by our electoral authorities disapproved, however, Nigerians went to Ghana to monitor the elections! Our electoral process is not transparent and acceptable. It remains to be done nationally and internationally.


Corruption is used here for the capture of a condition or state of falsehood, dishonesty, illegitimacy, illegality or injustice directed towards the acquisition of power, money or position for private gain and sectionals.

Corruption has become endemic in Nigeria and a corrupt cultural system would generate a corrupt society. A society and people naturally produce this type, except that drastic surgery is a cultural shift is a result of the time: remember the formula for the Study Social. Nigerian society provides a fertile ground for fraudulent practices, which would lead to the institutionalization of corruption. A corrupt society according to Lewis (2008) produced corrupt leaders and followers, copy or create corrupt leaders and corrupt institutions corrupt institutions to create a multiple systems corrupt. This may explain why almost no establishments institution or system that is free of corruption in Nigeria. religious are not exempt from this. Corruption in fact it is the worst enemy of Nigeria preventing citizens from enjoying the tremendous natural resources. Corruption is detrimental to economic growth. Increases inequality in income and poverty by reducing economic growth. It also promotes and maintains the unequal distribution of asset ownership and unequal access to education (Olajide, 2008).

Despite the creation of agencies to combat corruption as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices and other related offenses Commission (ICPC) corrupt practices have continued to manifest itself in various forms and shapes cleverly marked in Nigeria. This monster called corruption has continued to be the nightmare of driving the country towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Recently, in an interactive session with the House of Representatives Committee on Drugs and Narcotics and Financial Crimes, the Executive Director of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) alleged that some Nigerians have cashed in on falling world prices and had been crossing the world day and night to buy property with money stolen the country. Perpetrators of this crime knows how to defeat all the mechanisms in place to verify their nefarious activities. Our image has been severely dented by corrupt activities of Nigerians. corruption among Nigerians is also evident in Internet fraud and the marked progress of Free fraud (also known as 419). A number of innocent Nigerians and foreigners have been victims of both Internet and Advance Fee Fraud. A number of young people now live with the big fat proceeds of corruption and fraud.

Nigeria's image has been severely dented in the whole world as a result of the fraudulent practices of some of our citizens. Several Nigerians are languishing in prisons in several countries – some of which were not so fortunate, were executed by the authorities of those countries in those who committed the atrocities. The war against corruption seems to have been approached during the Obasanjo regime. Yar Ardua is administration promised that there would sacred cows in his government's fight against corruption. However, his war against corruption was the subject of serious skepticism and cynicism after redistribution former President of the agency in the fight against corruption and its many tribulations since then, culminating in his dismissal. It is a sad commentary and sends a very wrong message to Nigerians and the international community.

The pace of the crusade against corruption will stop and some observers are actually concerned, because the suffering of the masses, they feel have been caused by a few individuals who have diverted money intended for the welfare of the masses for personal gain. One of the apparent reasons why corruption has continued to invade the length and breadth of Nigeria may be that the three tiers of government lip service to its eradication.

Corruption has hurt the political community and the generality of our people is immeasurable and incalculable. The malaise permeates all strata of society, including public institutions. According to this opinion on 05 November 2008, nothing works well in Nigeria due to corruption. Several roads are in a deplorable state, even when attempts are made in the rehabilitation of roads, corruption is not possible a thorough job and durable.

Education and corruption

Sexual harassment has become so pervasive in Nigeria's tertiary education. It is a state very worrying situation. The issue of sexual harassment in higher institutions has attracted the attention of a number of academics – (Osakwe 2008, Igborgbor 2008 Okech, 2008). Sexual harassment is a manifestation of power relations and the majority of girls and women are the times at the receiving end. sexual harassment is not limited to any age level – some of the older scholars have been known to play this game abominable. Some academics have lost their jobs resulting from this misdemeanor. Some have continued to exploit and pollute public girls and flaunt their sexual adventures. Some girls and married women have been traumatized, all in a bid to acquire a university degree or diploma from other tertiary institutions. Closely related to the issue of sexual harassment is corruption in our system education from primary to university level. Pupils and students are forced to pay a fee or the other. Signature of the referees report, the office, as of course data card – all illegal charges attract. Some time in the history of Nigeria,

Teachers at all levels of education gained great respect from members of the public. Seen as honest advice, disciplined and, morally, it was then fashionable in search of a teacher when a charge public calls for a person of great integrity became vacant. They had the aura of saints and their fans always showed the right whenever they had the opportunity provide expertise and knowledge to influence public life. However, this sacred integrity of the academic class seems to have taken his license and that the country still stench of corruption (Aghedo 2008).

In the last couple of years, three teachers paid the price for the sexual exploitation of girls and had to be disgraced out of office. There are still many more waiting to be unhappy. academic corruption has assumed different dimensions ranging from plagiarism, victimization, muzzling academic freedom, erosion of mentoring in the production of foot soldiers / "academic hostage taking" – for which young academics under a senior colleague have no choice but to follow orders from his master. Academic freedom that once characterized the university system is fast eroding and giving way to the campus dangerous policy, lobbies and other interest groups – whose interests are some other things other than academics.

Examination malpractice has become a serious problem facing education in Nigeria. The phenomenon has become monstrous and have only very bold and ruthless measures to delete. The unfortunate situation is that some people expected to address this issue are the result of examination malpractice themselves.

  1. bad practice of gender analysis is not restricted, both boys and girls are firmly in the business.

Transport and corruption

Airports lack necessary facilities, the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) can not locate the sites of shipwrecks air. The latest challenge place until several months later by hunters. The rail lines being dysfunctional – some rail lines are used by merchants to display their wares.

Attitude to General Corruption

People no longer expresses the bitterness and shock each Once you hear about billions of naira being stolen from public coffers, as it has become an everyday practice. For example, it was reported that in one month, a governor in a state spent N1bn (Billions of naira) in its security status – a state where there was no war, or the breakdown of law and order.

The state of corruption in Nigeria today is a product of the inconsistency and irregularity of the war against corruption – After having been fought to a standstill by the general Murtala Mohammed in 1975 and 1976, a follow-up as Buhari / Idiagbon and later by Nuhu Ribadu would have brought the monster to its knees. But the period between Muhammad Buhari and General Babangida brought in, who ruled between 1985 and 1993. Unlike the Buhari regime that came hard on the looters of public funds to several of them were sentenced to various prison, Babangida Total assets of the various officers and restored the ranks of the officers fired. Call it a reward of corruption! This History may repeat itself once more if the plight of Nuhu Ribadu is allowed to continue. Call it punishment for fighting corruption! The war against corruption is currently asleep.

Corruption and the Energy Sector

Two thousand (2,000) megawatts of electricity was built in 2008, compared to 3,000 produced in 2003. These figures are ridiculous. South Africa with a population of 60 million, generating 45 000 megawatts and South African government aims to increase its capacity to 60,000. How can Nigeria continue to claim that the giant of Africa? Our industries and small scale enterprises provide their own electricity – how can the point of balance to the exorbitant cost of production due mainly to lack of constant supply of power public. How can industrial dreams of Nigeria is updated in the light of current energy challenges. Despite the president's plan to declare a state emergency in the energy sector, things have not improved. small businesses, artisans and various self Nigerians have been forced to close their businesses due to the unavailability of energy.

It was reported (Tell December 8 in a month (November 2008) the feeding situation worsening of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) to announce the loss of 800 MW generation capacity – in the same period of Sapele Power Station was closed completely to down, and the plant was operating in Lagos Egbin "with a reduced capacity." Exactly after 10 days, PHCN reported the additional loss of 200 MW. All these factors have been responsible for energy rationing zonal rotation 12 hours to maintain system stability and ensure a uniform distribution limited generation output of operating plants. Under the rotation plan, PHCN divided the country into zones. Each zone receives power for 12 hours, and even this is no guarantee that the light would come. There are areas or sections of the country where the outage is more regular than the public supply. Even the "promise" additional 6,500 MW by 2009 is very far from our electricity demands provided for in Nigeria.

In addition, we were informed (Tell December 2008) that each university spends more than N120 million annually on diesel. What a colossal waste of money that would have been plowed in other critical areas of management University. Not many universities in Nigeria, you can even afford to spend such a staggering amount of money for electricity. This, of course, does not include bills PHCN regular electricity.

CORRUPTION AND steel industry

The iron and steel has swallowed thousands of millions of dollars since the 1980s – but there is nothing to show for it. The Federal Government sets the Ajaokuta and Delta Steel plant, with three mills in the interior Rolling Oshogbo, Jos and Katsina. Plants and steel mills have not been able to meet the aspirations of the Nigerian steel, mainly due to corruption and beaurcactic bottlenecks. What we have now is more like museums steel instead of steel plants. How do we explain the astronomical cost of imported iron and products steel when it is supposed to be the producers of the product? In some plants, components and spare parts are no longer being produced anywhere in the world. The equipment components are completely obsolete, leaving the engineers to cannibalize existing components to the point that there is nothing to appeal.

The Minister of State who oversees the Ministry of Mines and Steel Development, recently pleaded with Nigerians to be patient with the pace of development, stating that "in them is not going slow government ". Unfortunately, Nigerians, but I can not believe it's been this administration and there is no clear policy on how to reengineer the steel industry and industrial position to take out of Nigeria. How long will Nigerians wait for the launch of an effective iron and steel? Several Nigerians were sent to Europe, Russia and Japan to be trained for the iron and steel. All these high-caliber human resources have been dismissed in the face privatization policy of the last administration. Some of the steel plants were awarded to political associates / business partners of the government the time.

The iron and steel is the basis of any sense technological and industrial development of any nation. Nigeria can not afford afford to remain an eternal importer of steel products. This sector should contribute significantly to the economic development of Nigeria. There seems to be a clear roadmap leading Nigeria to become a major player in steel development on the African continent. How can the dream of making Nigeria one of the top 20 economies world in 2020 come true? How can you achieve when primary steel mills have been privatized into the wrong hands? The primary source control steel (liquid level) is the control of the nation's industrial development. The iron and steel, then is a critical area of economic development should not be left in the hands of investors whether foreign or indigenous.

The railway line that links dedicated Delta Steel Company, Aladja, Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited and Nigerian Iron Ore Mining Company Itakpe have not yet finished – until it becomes full value of companies can not perform. The proposed rail line like other governments in various projects is more like an abandoned project that is already suffering from the rapid depreciation. The Niger River is not yet dredged and the Escravos estuary is not yet clear. liquid steel can be produced at Ajaokuta without all these things being put in place.


One issue that has troubled many Nigerians and sent shivers down the spine of citizenship has to do with murders extra-judicial. A number of families who have suffered trauma from the loss of their loved ones in incidents of extrajudicial killing border. The unfortunate aspect of these developments is that the evidence is completely deleted or the victims are portrayed as criminals – the dead can not speak for himself. Some examples will reinforce the point here – almost two decades ago, a Nigerian Dele Udo star athlete was shot dead by police at a checkpoint point. This has also been the fate of a number of innocent Nigerians in various police checkpoints throughout the country at one time or another. In 2002, some traders traveling along the Oken – Lokoja road were intercepted by some policemen who discovered they had a lot of money on them. The police tied to traders and packages on the bus and set it on fire, while the making away with their millions of naira. One of the traders miraculously survived and escaped and reported the incident. The officers were arrested late, courts and duly punished. A renowned journalist, Bayo Awosika died in circumstances bordering on extrajudicial executions. It said he died after his vehicle was hit by a police van and then a somersault several times before landing in another part of the road. Despite the claim of sommersault, there was no dent in the vehicle, the car's handbrake was still Bayo, and had a piece of wood under the car. Postmortem examination revealed that the young man died of a missile injury – that is, been beaten by a fast-moving metal (bullet). Could have been another case of extrajudicial killing. The case John Abah citizen in Benue State is still very fresh. On November 14, 2008, bullets fired by a patrolling police team brought him down, the youth had out that night to relax with friends when his life was cut short. The incident that led to his premature death is attributable to a rift between the deceased and a police officer public brewery. In 2006, police killed a young man in the same city – Oturkpo, during a protest by residents to a facility due to power outage PHCN.

On December 2, 2008, the authorities of the Lagos State University, were forced to issue a press release about the filming of their students. This was sequel to the film of the November 25, 2008, 4 students of the University who had come for the identification of Local Government. arising from the rapid reaction of the authorities of the University Lagos State Governor of the State took action. The police were wrongly arrested and subsequently dismissed. One student shot finally succumbed his injuries despite the combined efforts of the Lagos State Government and Lagos State University to save his life. The question is how long will Nigerians support this barbaric and senseless killing of its citizens by the people who are expected to protect them? The murder of a student in Athens, Greece early in December 2008 triggered protests students and teachers from several consecutive days. The killing of a Brazilian in the UK during a raid carried terror to the police chase case. In December 2008 a woman was killed in the state of Ogun – was taken to an armed robber. Police made the effort to explain spirit away the fact that women was an armed robber. One youth was shot dead by a policeman outside a bank in Benin City to participate in a fight in front of the bank – the incident took place in January 2009. In January the same month a youth was shot dead by police in Lagos in unexplained circumstances. Some commercial drivers have been victims of gunfire police or other forms of brutality by his refusal to part with their money illegally "usual toll."


Following the Millennium Declaration that was adopted at the Millennium Summit in New York, 6-8 September 2000, Nigeria committed to realizing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. These objectives were measurable targets for making improvements in the lives of citizens more world's poor.

Goal I: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Poverty continues to gaze of millions of Nigerians in the face. The degree of hunger is clearly reflected in the funeral, wedding and other social events where free food and drinks are served generously by a few. At these meetings, several guests guests will not fight for food. Worse, are teenagers who eagerly await the grist for those with an adequate service to leave the remains so they can eat or get along. Many of our young men have become scavengers in the midst of plenty is assumed.

Under Bolatito (2008), poverty exists where people lack the means to meet their basic needs. These can be defined in a narrow sense as the needs necessary for survival, or in terms general needs that reflects the level of living there in the community. poverty describes a situation in which the peoples of resources (material, social and cultural) within those constraints to exclude these people from the minimum acceptable way of life. Poverty has many facets (Bolatito 2008), including poor access to services public utilities and infrastructure, unsanitary environment, illiteracy and ignorance, poor health, insecurity, lack of voice and social exclusion, including low levels family income and food insecurity.

Between the period 1980-1996, the proportion of poor people increased from 28.1% in 1980 to 65.6% in 1996. This in terms of numbers translates into 17.7 million poor in 1980 and 67.1 million people in 1996. It is estimated that by 2015, between 30.1 million and 40.4 million people still living in poverty in Nigeria.

According to the African Forum and Network on Debt and Development (AFRODAD 2005), Nigeria, with a per capita annual income of just 300 dollars, is one of the 20 poorest countries in the world. Nigeria is estimated to grow by about 3% and the national savings rate is about 15%. In the midst of other challenges of enormous proportions of the decay of infrastructure and corruption, how can Nigeria reach number one goal of the Millennium?

Since independence, Nigeria has steadily decreased in the group of countries with low human development, characterized by a (HR) ratio of less than 0.5 (on a scale of 0-1). With a score 0.470, Nigeria occupies a lower position 158th, where countries such as Eritrea and Senegal better price. This is a great shame indeed. How can say that Benin Republic and Rwanda are higher in the scale of Nigeria's GDP per capita.

Table 1: Human Development Index of Nigeria 2005

HND value

Life expectancy at birth (years)

Rate literacy

(Between 154% and more)

Combined primary, secondary and relationship Gross tertiary enrollment (%)

GDP per capita (PPP U.S. $)

1. Iceland (0.968)

1. Japan (82.3)

1. Georgia (100.0)

1. Australia (113.0)

1. Luxembourg (60 228)

156. Senegal (0499)

163.Botswana (48.1)

102.Algeria (69.9)

136.Nepal (58.2)

158.Rwanda (1206)

157.Eritrea (0483)

1653.Cote d'Ivoire (47.4)

103.Tanzania (United
Republic of) (69.4)

Guinea 137.Equatorial (58.1)

159.Benin (1141)

158.Nigeria (0470)

165.Nigeria (46.5)

104.Nigeria (69.1)

138.Nigeria (56.2)

160. Nigeria (1128)

159.Tanzania (United Republic of) (0467)

166.Malawi (46.3)

105. Guatemala (69.1)

139. Bangladesh (56.0)

161. Eritrea (1109)

160. Guinea (0456)

167.Guinea-Bissau (45.8)

106.Lao Democratic People's Republic (68.7)

140.Yemen (55.2)

162. Ethiopia (1055)

177.Sierra Leone (0.336)

177.Zambia (40.5)

139.Burkina Faso (23.6)

172.Niger (22.7)

174.Malawi (667)

Human Development Report 2007/2008 fact sheets – Nigeria

Table 2: Selected indicators of human poverty for Nigeria

The Poverty Index (HPI-1) 2004

Probability of not surviving past age 40 (5) 2004

Rate Illiteracy (% ages 15 and older) 2004

People without access to improved water source (%) 2004

Children underweight for age (% ages 0-5) 2004

1.Chad (56.9)

1.Zimbabwe (57.4)

1.Burkina Faso (76.4)

1.Ethiopia (78)

1.Nepal (48)

27.Yemen (38.0)

12.Congo (Democratic Republic of (41.1)

34.The Democratic People's Republic (31.3)

8.Congo (Democratic Republic of (54)

22. Angola (31)

28. Burundi (37.6)

13.Guinea-Bissau (40.5)

35. Guatemala (30.9)

9. Fiji (53)

23.Maldives (30)

29. Nigeria (37.3)

14.Nigeria (39.0)

36.Nigeria (30.9)

10. Nigeria (52)

24.Nigeria (29)

30.Malawi (36.7)

15.Cote d'Ivoire (38.6)

37.Tanzania (United Republic of) (30.6)

11.Madagascar (50)

25.Sri Lanka (29)

31.Rwanda (36.5)

16.Uganda (38.5)

38.Algeria (30.1)

12. Mali (50)

26. Philippines (28)

108. Barbados (3.0)

173.Iceland (1.4)

164.Estonia (0.2)

125.Hungary (1)

134.Chile (1)

Human Development Report 2007/2008 – Country Facts Sheets – Nigeria

Tables 1 and 2 summarize the sordid state of affairs as it relates to the characterization of poverty in Nigeria at the global level. What is achievable in the face MGD1 This staggering level of poverty in Nigeria?

GOAL 2: Achieve universal primary education

The National Education Policy (2004, revised) states that "the government recognizes education as an instrument par excellence to promote a national evolution. Universal Basic Commission Education (UBEC) charged with the responsibility to ensure that Nigeria achieves the goal of universal primary education by 2015. How can this noble goal attained in the face of the lack of cooperation from several states of the federation, in compliance with the requirements for access to state funding for education program universal basic? Less than 50% of the states in the country have been able to meet the payment of counterpart funds. Unless and until this is done, as states noncompliance, and, by extension, the country can not meet the 2015 target date for achieving universal primary education. What could be responsible for mediocre attitude of state governments fulfilling their various part of the obligation in this regard? Can it be that education is undervalued by democratic actors ongoing or that the conditions for accessing funds does not allow the usual huge financial leaks into the wrong hands?

Nigeria also supported the Jometien Conference on Education for All (EFA) by 2000, which sets targets for early childhood and development, primary education, junior secondary and adult literacy. The trend in gross enrollment ratio (GER) indicates significant fluctuations in enrollment between 1991 and 2000. enrollment increased considerably between 1990 and 1994, from 68% to 86%. Since then, enrollment dropped to 81% in 1995 and 70% in 1996. Thus, Nigeria has not achieved the goal Jometien EFA 2000.

Universal Basic Education (UBE) guideline states that each elementary and junior high school must have a science lab in general to deal with basic science and domestic science, good ventilation toilet for a maximum of 40 pupils or students per toilet, a teacher to teach handling of 40 pupils or students. These conditions so you can get in our schools is a utopia, and can not be achieved even by 2015. Very few Schools have the appearance of a laboratory. The nearby bushes provide health services in some of our schools.

GOAL 3: Promote gender equality gender and empower women

The objective of this goal is to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005 and all levels of education no later than 2015. The indicators here are:

– Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education.

– Ratio of literate females to males 15-24 years of age.

– Proportion of women in wage employment in the sector nonfarm

– Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament.

Gender disparities are still strongly manifested in access to primary education, secondary and tertiary education leading to unequal access to employment (Millennium Development Goals Report 2004)

It is estimated that 50% Nigeria's population are women and girls, however, the gender disparity in access to primary education, secondary and tertiary back to the pre-colonial Africa has its roots in traditional culture. Is the goal of gender equality and empowerment of women reached by 2015. The answer is obviously negative. Society must be prepared to deal with gender stereotypes and acceptance that the female gender can aspire to greater heights if society permits. The secular notion of women as just being there to make children or to meet the demands of the people of the pleasure of men should be discarded. Women excel in any chosen career come in, but they are very good and better stewards of the home and society. There should be no gender discrimination in work, whether public or private.

GOAL 4 – Reduce child mortality

The National Report on Millennium Development Goals (2004) noted that no progress has been made in reducing infant mortality. Demographic estimates of the 2003 National Health Survey was under five mortality rate of 217 per 1000 with significant regional variations. Urban and rural areas were under five mortality rates of 243 per 1,000 and 153 per 1000, respectively. The projection of the goal in question, there must be a reduction of two thirds (2 / 3) of children under five years to 2015. In other words, Nigeria should be able to reduce the morals of children under five to 49 per 1,000 in 2015. It is highly unlikely that Nigeria will meet the 2015 target of reducing mortality of children by two thirds (2 / 3).

The main obstacles to achieving the MDG goal 4 are the low access to health care (poverty) HIV / AIDS and poor maternal health. Good health services costs money and this is beyond the reach of the poor that unfortunately are the majority of the population Nigeria. Corruption and greed has not allowed even to free health services to the poor. Unfortunately, the government who should ensure a high plant of the medical establishment in our public health institutions have failed in their responsibilities. It is these very people who can afford to travel abroad with the least ailments.

Availability of health facilities, 1996 – 2000

(Per'000 people)






Number of Physicians






Number of hospital beds






The table shows the same poor state of health facilities in Nigeria. What efforts are moving in the field to ensure that the situation changed radically in the positive direction by the year 2015?

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

The aim of this target is to reduce mortality maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Although there have been slight decline in maternal mortality since 1990, the level remains high, approximately 1,000 100,000 live births since the late 1990s to 2001. The national rate of maternal mortality was 704 per 100,000 live births, with considerable regional variation (Report on MDG 2004)

Maternal deaths in Nigeria, as in most developing countries are often traceable to the powerlessness of women and their unequal access employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources.

The challenges for achieving target 5 of the MDGs include teen pregnancy, cultural practices, lack of health personnel and other infrastructure, especially in rural areas. Nigeria accounts for 10% of these deaths were recorded (UCAID 2008).

52 000 Nigerian women die each year from maternal related complications. Lanre-Abass (2008) stated that the majority of births in Nigeria (66%) occur in the home. A smaller percentage of women receive postnatal care, which is crucial for monitoring and treatment of complications in the first two days after delivery. health system in Nigeria has been plagued by problems of quality of service, including the hostile attitude of some health personnel (doctors and nurses) insufficient knowledge, decaying infrastructure, shortages of essential drugs and counterfeit medicines.

GOAL 6: HIV / AIDS, malaria and other diseases

It is estimated that 4.5 million Nigerian adults and children living with HIV / AIDS in 2008. The cumulative AIDS deaths in 2008 was about 4.2 million people. These are startling figures that should affect any group of people (Osakwe 2008). The age groups most affected by The virus contains 20 to 29 years of age, while the regions with higher prevalence rates are the North Central, Northeast, and South-South zones. It is surprising that the University 10,800 treaty with HIV between January and October 2008.

Several factors contribute to the spread of HIV / AIDS in Nigeria, which network includes sexual practices such as polygamy, a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections untreated (STIs.), low condom use, poverty, low literacy, poor health, stigma and irresponsible sexual behavior. The prevalence of malaria in Nigeria remains high, and this is due to the abundance of drains blocked and dirt which helps in malaria vectors. An estimated one million deaths occur each year in Nigeria resulting from malaria. The fact that we lack of trained medical personnel to implement national programs such as AIDS remains a major challenge towards the realization of Goal 6 of the MDGs.

GOAL 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Nigeria is still grappling with the challenge of environmental sustainability. There are still problems related major land degradation, pollution, flooding, erosion, desertification, inefficient use of energy resources, loss of biodiversity, environmental disasters and deforestation. There are still poor access to improved sanitation facilities in Nigeria, which can be attributed the poor implementation of health and housing and other related policies, high levels of poverty, low awareness of issues related to sustainability environment and rural improvement in general. Why perennial gully erosion in the southeast, parts of Delta and Edo challenged attention – however, farmland and the buildings are cleaned each year, cutting off roads and separate communities, children and adults are swept by the floods. How can you explain it that in the 21st century, even in some campuses, students defecate anywhere and worse in some women's shelters! "Short set" has gained new meaning for this antisocial behavior. Students defecating in black polythene bags and throw it behind your room or leave them in the bathroom ends. Sometimes these wastes Humans are caught up in gutters and drains thus creating health hazards. Excavations for building construction and sand can not be as obvious as a environmental risk in the short post, but without resorting to the excavation of the environmental consequences leaves much pain and anguish for the people. Some Nigerian daily contribute to environmental degradation and threat to lives and property of their hostile activities and environmental neglect -.

GOAL 8: Develop partnership Global Development

Nigeria has continued to play a prominent role in regional cooperative

About the Author

Professor Emman Osakwe
B.Sc. (Nig), M.Ed. (Philadelphia), M.A. (London) Ph.D (Ibadan)

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