Home > Womens Sneakers > Chiang Marcy Brown

Chiang Marcy Brown

Organic light-emitting elements emitting diodes for displays-Smart

Organic light emitting diode element-Smart for viewing.

An organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a light emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is consisting of a film of organic compounds. This layer of organic semiconductor material is formed between two electrodes, where at least one electrode is transparent.

OLED can be used in television screens, computer monitors, small portable system screens such as cell phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information and indication. OLEDs can also be used in light sources for general lighting space, and large area light emitting elements. Emitting OLED less light per unit area than inorganic solid-state based LEDs.

OLED displays have certain advantages over liquid crystal displays (LCD). OLED displays require no backlight to function. Therefore, it can display deep black levels and may be thinner and lighter than panels LCD. OLED screens achieve higher contrast ratios than any of the LCDs with cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) or the more recently developed LED.

OLED Components: An OLED is a device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick, or 200 times smaller than a human hair. OLED can having two layers or three layers of organic material, the latter in the design, the third electron transport layer allows the cathode to the emission layer. In this article, we will focus on the design of two layers.

An OLED consists of the following parts:

1.Substrate (plastic transparent, glass, paper) – The substrate supports the OLED.

2.Anode (Clear) – The anode removes electrons (electrons added "holes") when a current flows through the device.

3.Organic layers – These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers.

4.Conducting Layer – This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" of the anode. A conducting polymer OLEDs are used in polyaniline.

5. Cathode: The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer

Com OLED raised a emissive layer, a conductive layer, a substrate, and both the anode and cathode terminals. The layers are made of organic molecules that lead electricity. The layers have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors, so that OLEDs are considered the organic semiconductor.

OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer of poly (p-phenylene vinylene).

Multilayer OLED can have more than two layers to improve device properties efficiencyand conductive layers are chosen to aid charge injection at the electrodes, providing a more gradual or block electronic profile by reaching the electrode opposite is wasted.


Schematic of a two-layer OLED: 1. Cathode (-), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. The emission radiation, 4. Conductive Layer, 5. Anode (+)

OfOLEDs Operation:

OLED emit light in a manner similar to the LEDs through a process called electrophosphorescence.

The process is as follows: 1. voltage is applied across the OLED.

2.An Electric current flows from cathode to anode through the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons).

The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of organic molecules.

The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules.

3.At the border between the emissive and the conductive layer, electrostatic forces bring the electrons and holes towards each other and recombine them. This is closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. The recombination causes a drop in levels energy of electrons, accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. Therefore, this layer is called emission.

4. When this happens, the electron gives up energy in the form of a photon of light. The OLED emits


5. Color of light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emission layer.

Manufacturers place several types of organic films of the same color OLED screens.

6.When the anode is placed at a negative potential relative to the cathode then the holes move inthe anode and electrons to the cathode, so being away from each other and not recombine.In this case is not OLED works as an emitter of light.  

7.The intensity or brightness of light depends on the amount of electric current: the flow again, the brighter the light

OLED materials should 8.Anode high work function cathode material should have low workfunction.so is generally used indium tin oxide as anode material. It is transparent to visible light and has a work function which promotes injection of holes in the upper layer of polymer. Metals such as aluminum and calcium are often used for the cathode, because they have job functions that promote low electron injection in polymer layer

Types of OLEDs:

There are several types OLEDs and each type has different uses.

1.Passive matrix OLED

2.Activate matrix OLED

OLED 3.Transparent

4.Top emitting OLED

OLED 5.Foldable

OLED 6.White

Passive-matrix OLED (pmol)
PMOLEDs have strips of cathode, organic layers and strips of anode. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. The intersections of the cathode and the anode are the pixels where light is emitted. External circuits currently applies to the selected bands of anode and cathode, determining which pixels are excited in pixels and will remain off. Again, the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of current applied.

PMOLEDs easy to do, but consume more energy than other types of OLED, mainly due to the energy required for the external circuit. PMOLEDs are more efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2 – to 3-inch diagonal) as those found in cell phones, PDAs and MP3 players. Even with the external circuitry, passive matrix OLED consumes less power than LCD today.

AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode, organic molecules and the anode, but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. The TFT array itself is determined by the circuit the pixels are excited to form an image.

AMOLEDs PMOLEDs consume less energy because the TFT array requires less power than external circuits, which are efficient for large screens. AMOLEDs also have higher refresh rates suitable for video. The best applications are the monitors AMOLEDs computer, big screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards

Transparent OLED
Transparent OLEDs are transparent components only (Substrate, cathode and anode) and, when switched off, are up 85 percent, transparent as their substrate. When a clear OLED display is enabled, allows light to pass in both directions. A transparent OLED display can be active or passive matrix. This technology can be used to displays.TOLEDs heads-up can greatly improve contrast, making it much easier to see the sample of bright sunlight.This technology can be used in Head-up displays, smart windows applications or increased reality

Top-emitting OLED
Top-emitting OLEDs have a substrate that is opaque or reflective. They are best for the design of active matrix. Manufacturers can use the top emission OLED displays in smart cards.

OLED folding
Foldable OLED substrates are metal or plastic plates highly flexible. Foldable OLED are very lightweight and durable. Their use in devices such as cell phones and PDAs can reduce the fracture, a major reason for the return or repair. Potentially, foldable OLED displays can be attached to the tissues to create "smart" clothing, as clothing outdoor survival with an integrated computer chip, cell phone, GPS receiver and OLED display stitched on it.

White OLED
White OLEDs emit white light is brighter, more uniform and more energy efficient than emitted by fluorescent lights. White OLEDs also have the true color qualities of incandescent lighting. Because OLEDs can be made in large sheets, which can replace fluorescent lamps currently used in homes and buildings. Their use could potentially reduce energy costs for lighting.

In the next section, we discuss the pros and cons of OLED technology and how it compares to regular LED and LCD technology.

Stacked OLED

Stacked OLED (sole) uses a pixel architecture that stacks red, green and blue subpixels on top of each other instead of side by side, resulting a substantial increase in range and depth of color, and greatly reducing pixel gap. Today, other display technologies have the RGB (and RGBW) pixels assigned next to each other resolution reduced capacity.

Inverted OLED

Unlike a conventional OLED, the anode is placed on the substrate, an inverted OLED (IOLED) uses a bottom cathode that can be connected to one side of the drain n-channel TFT especially for the low cost of amorphous silicon TFT useful in the manufacture of AMOLED backplane [44].

OLED Advantages

OLEDs offer many advantages over LCDs and LEDs:

1.The plastic, organic layers of an OLED are thinner, lighter and more flexible than crystalline layers of an LED or LCD.

2.Because the light-emitting layers of OLEDs are lighter, the substrate of an OLED can be flexible rather than rigid.

substrates can 3.OLED be made of plastic instead of glass for LEDs and LCDs.

4.OLEDs are brighter than LEDs.

5.Because layers functional of an OLED are much thinner than the corresponding inorganic crystal layers of an LED, the conductive and emissive layers of an OLED may be several layers.

6.LEDs and LCDs require glass for support, and the glass absorbs some light. OLED does not require glass.

7.OLEDs require no backlighting like LCDs. OLEDs as they generate light

8. Since OLEDs do not require backlighting, they consume less power than LCD much. This is especially important for battery operated devices such as cell phones.

9.OLEDs are easier to produce and can be done larger sizes. Because OLEDs are essentially plastics, may be in large sheets and thin.

10.OLEDs have large fields of vision, around 170 degrees. OLEDs produce their own light, so they have a much wider range of viewing.

Disadvantages OLED
OLED seems to be the perfect technology for all types of displays, but also has some problems:

1.Lifetime – While the red and green OLED films have longer lifetimes (46000-230000 hours), blue organics currently have much shorter shelf life (up to about 14,000 hours.

Manufacturing – Production processes are expensive right now.

2.Water – Water can damage OLEDs.

Color balance problems

The OLED materials used to produce blue light degrades much more quickly than other materials that produce color light output blue declines relative to the other colors of light. This differential color change of the output is going to change the color balance of the screen and is much more remarkable that a decrease of the total luminosity. This may have been avoided by adjusting the color balance but this may require advanced control circuits and the interaction with the user, which is unacceptable for some users.

Other companies

The Optimus Maximus keyboard developed by Art. Lebedev Studio and published in early 2008 × 113 48 OLED uses 48 pixels (10.1 × 10.1 mm) for the keys.

OLED can be used in high-resolution holography (volume visualization). Professor Orbit showed on 12 May 2007, EXPO Lisbon the possible application of these materials to reproduce three-dimensional video. [Citation needed]

OLEDs could also be used as sources of solid-state light. the OLED efficiency and lifetime already exceed those of incandescent bulbs, and OLEDs are investigated worldwide as a source of general illumination, an example is the EU OLLA project [75].

On March 11, 2008 GE Global Research demonstrated successful first roll-to-roll manufactured OLED, marking a significant milestone towards the economical production of commercial OLED technology. The four-year, $ 13 million project Research was carried out by GE Global Research, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. [76] [77]

Chi Mei Corporation of Taiwan, showed a 25 "low-temperature polycrystalline silicon active matrix OLED at the Society of Information Display (SID) held in Los Angeles, California, USA on 20-22 May, 2008.

On June 5, 2009 DuPont demonstrated a new material that can be printed, called solution deposition. The advance is the ability to produce OLED screens economically scalable and lasting peace in the 2009 International Symposium, May 31-05 June 2009, Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA

The use of OLED is also being investigated for the treatment of cancer by photodynamic therapy [78].

On August 30, 2009, LG Electronics of South Korea announced it will launch a 15-inch TV set with AM-OLED screens on sale in November. [79] [80]

According to iSuppli Corp, [81] upward momentum OLED shipments for primary cell phone screens is your expectation in the coming years. They claimed that shipments major world OLED screens of mobile phones would rise to 178 million units in 2015, compared to 22.2 million in 2009. In other words, shipments rise by eight in 2015. Therefore, it is clear that OLED display manufacturing equipment and OLED from Samsung, DuPont, Anwell, Chi Mei Corporation, has expanded dramatically etc. in recent years.


  1. ^ A b Sony XEL-1: The world of OLED TV first, Nov.17 2008 OLED-Info.com
  2. ^ A. Bernanose, M. Comte, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1953 50, 64.
  3. ^ A. Bernanose, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1953, 50, 261.
  4. ^ A. Bernanose, J. Chim. Phys. 1955, 52, 396.
  5. ^ Bernanose A., P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1955, 52, 509.
  6. ^ Kallmann, H., Pope, M. (1960). "Positive injection Hole in organic crystals. "The Journal of Chemical Physics 32: 300. doi: 10.1063/1.1700925.
  7. ^ Kallmann, H., Pope, M. (1960). "Bulk conductivity in organic crystals." Nature 186: 31. doi: 10.1038/186031a0.
  8. ^ Mark, Peter, Helfrich, Wolfgang (1962). "Space-Charge-Limited Currents in Organic Crystals." Journal of Applied Physics 33: 205. doi: 10.1063/1.1728487.
  9. ^ Pope, M., Kallmann, HP; Magnante, P. (1963). "Crystals of organic electroluminescence." The Journal of Chemical Physics 38: 2042. doi: 10.1063/1.1733929.
  10. ^ Sano, Mizuka; Pope, Martin, Kallmann, Hartmut (1965). "Electroluminescence and The Gap Band anthracene. The Journal of Chemical Physics 43: 2920. doi: 10.1063/1.1697243.
  11. ^ Helfrich, W., Schneider, W. (1965). "Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals." Physical Review Letters 14: 229. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.229.
  12. ^ Mallias, George; friend, Richard (2005). "A Primer of organic electronics." Physics Today 58: 53. doi: 10.1063/1.1995748.
  13. ^ E. Gurnee, R. Fernandez, U.S. Patent 3,172,862 paintball has virtuosos had a meeting with the OLED, 1965.
  14. ^ R. McNeill, R. Siudak, Wardlaw JH, Weiss, electronic conduction in polymers. I. The structure polypyrrole chemistry, Aus. J. Chem 1963, 16, 1056.
  15. ^ BA Bolt, Weiss, driving Electronic Polymers. I. Chemical structure of polypyrrole, Aus. J. Chem 1963, 16, 1056.
  16. ^ BA Bolt, R. McNeill, Weiss, Electronic conduction in polymers. III. Electronic properties of polypyrrole, Aus. J. Chem 1963, 16 1090.
  17. ^ McGinness J, Corry P,, Proctor, P (1974). Amorphous Semiconductor Switching in Melanins "semiconductor switching amorphous in melanins. "Science (New York, NY) 183 (127): 853-5. PMID 4359339. http://www.drproctor.com/os/amorphous.htm amorphous semiconductor switching in melanins.
  18. ^ Shirakawa, Hideki, Luis, Edwin J., MacDiarmid, Alan G., Chiang, Chwan K., Heeger, Alan J. (1977). "Synthesis of organic polymers that conduct electricity: halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH) x." Magazine Chemical Society, Chemical Communications: 578. doi: 10.1039/C39770000578.
  19. ^ The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Award Nobel Chemistry 2000, accessed July 28, 2007.
  20. ^ Information for the public about the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
  21. ^ U.S. Patent 3995299 Radiation Sources
  22. ^ Partridge, R (1983). "Electroluminescence polyvinylcarbazole the movies: 1. carbazole cation. "Polymers 24: 733. doi: 10.1016/0032-3861 (83) 90012-5.
  23. ^ Partridge, R (1983). "Electroluminescence polyvinylcarbazole movie: 2. Polyvinylcarbazole films containing antimony pentachloride. Polymer 24: 739. doi: 10.1016/0032-3861 (83) 90013-7.
  24. ^ Partridge, R (1983). "Electroluminescence polyvinylcarbazole movie: 3. Electroluminescent devices. "Polymers 24: 748. Doi: 10.1016/0032-3861 (83) 90014-9.
  25. ^ Partridge, R (1983). "Electroluminescence polyvinylcarbazole film: 4. Electroluminescence using higher cathode work function. "Polymers 24: 755. doi: 10.1016/0032-3861 (83) 90015-0.
  26. ^ A b Tang, CW; Vanslyke, SA (1987). "Organic electroluminescent diodes." Applied Physics Letters 51: 913. doi: 10.1063/1.98799.
  27. ^ Burroughes, JH, Bradley, DDC, Brown AR,, Marks RN, MacKay, K., Friend, RH, Burns PL, Holmes, AB (1990). "Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers." Nature 347: 539. doi: 10.1038/347539a0.
  28. ^ Piromreun, Pongpun, O Hwansool;, Yulong Shen, Mallia, George G., Scott, J. Campbell, Brock, Phil J. (2000). "Role of CSF injection of electrons in a conjugated polymer. "Applied Physics Letters 77: 2403. doi: 10.1063/1.1317547.
  29. ^ D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Kowalsky, Organic Light Emitting Diodes multilayered flat screens, Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik, Technical University Braunschweig, 1995.
  30. ^ Friend, RH; Gymer, RW, Holmes AB, Burroughes, JH, Marks RN, Taliani, C., Bradley, DDC, Santos, Dos DA et al. (1999). Nature 397: 121. doi: 10.1038/16393.
  31. ^ Duarte, FJ; Liao, LS; Vaeth, KM (2005). "Coherence characteristics of electrically excited tandem organic light-emitting diodes." Optics 30 cards (22): 3072-4. doi: 10.1364/OL.30.003072. PMID 16315725.
  32. ^ Duarte, FJ (2007). "Electrically coherently excited organic semiconductors: visibility of interferograms and emission linewidth. "Optics Letters 32 (4): 412-4. doi: 10.1364/OL.32.000412. PMID 17356670.
  33. ^ Hebner, TR, Wu CC, Marcy, D., Lu, MH, Sturm, JC (1998). "Jet printing ink additives for polymers with organic light emitting devices. "Applied Physics Letters 72: 519. doi: 10.1063/1.120807.
  34. ^ Bharathan, Jayesh; Yang, Yang (1998). "Polymer electroluminescent devices processed by the inkjet printing: I. logo light emitting polymers. "Applied Physics Letters 72: 2660. doi: 10.1063/1.121090.
  35. ^ Gustafsson, G., Cao, Y., Treacy, GM; Klavetter, F., Colaneri, N., Heeger, AJ (1992). "Light-emitting diodes, flexible made from soluble conducting polymers. "Nature 357: 477. doi: 10.1038/357477a0.
  36. ^ AJ Heeger, in WR Salaneck, I. Lundstrom, B. Ranby, Conjugated Polymers and Related Materials, Oxford 1993, 27-62. ISBN 0198557299
  37. ^ R. Kiebooms, R. Menon, K. Lee, HS Nalwa, Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices Volume 8, Academic Press 2001, 1-86.
  38. ^ Singh, Madhusudan, Chae, Hyun Sik; Froehlich, Jesse D.; Kondou, Takashi, Li, Sheng, Amane Mochizuki, Jabbour, Ghassan E. (2009). "Electroluminescence printed starry polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. "Soft Matter 5: 3002. doi: 10.1039/b903531a.
  39. ^ Liu, Jie; Lewis, Larry N.; Duggal, Anil R. (2007). "Photoactivated pattern and charge transport materials and their use in devices organic light-emitting. "Applied Physics Letters 90: 233 503. doi: 10.1063/1.2746404.
  40. Boroson ^ Michael;, Lee Tutt;, Kelvin Nguyen; Preuss, Don; Culver, Myron; Phelan, Giana (2005). "16.5L: Late-News-Paper: non-contact color OLED induced Patterns radiation transfer sublimation (RIST). "SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 36: 972. doi: 10.1889/1.2036612.
  41. ^ A b Sasaoka, Tatsuya; Sekiya, Mitsunobu; Yumoto, Akira; Yamada, Jiro Hirano, Takashi;, Yuichi Iwase, Yamada, Takao, Ishibashi, Tadashi et al. (2001). "24.4L: Late-News Paper: A 13.0-inch AM-OLED Display Top Emitter Structure and current adaptive pixel mode Timed Circuit (TAC). "SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 32: 384. Doi: 10.1889/1.1831876.
  42. ^ Tsujimura, Takatoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Murayama, Kohji; Tanaka, Atsushi; Morooka, Mitsuo; Fukumoto, Eri, Fujimoto, Hiroki; Sekine, Junichi et al. (2003). "4.1: A 20-inch OLED Display Driven by Super-amorphous silicon technology." SID Symposium Digest Technical Paper 34: 6. doi: 10.1889/1.1832193.
  43. ^ Graupner, Wilhelm (2000). Color high-resolution microdisplay organic light-emitting diode manufacturing method. pp. 11. doi: 10.1117/12.411762.
  44. ^ Chu, Ta-You, Chen, Jenn-Fang Chen, Szu-Yi Chen, Chao-Jung Chen, H. Chin (2006). "Very efficient and stable inverted bottom emitting organic light emitting of devices. "Applied Physics Letters 89: 053 503. doi: 10.1063/1.2268923.
  45. ^ Pardo, DA; Jabbour, GE; Peyghambarian, N. (2000). "Application of Screen Printing in the manufacture of organic-light emitting devices." Advanced Materials 12: 1249. doi: 3.0.CO; 2-Y 10.1002/1521-4095 (200 009) 12:173.0. CO, 2-Y.
  46. Viewsonic VX931 faster ^ LCD monitor with 1ms response time (2006)
  47. ^ "OLED TV estimated http://www.hdtvinfo.eu/news/hdtv-articles/oled-tv-estimated-lifespan-shorter-then-expected.html a shorter life then (sic) "expected ..
  48. ^ "Life expectancy has doubled OLED?." http://www.hdtvinfo.eu/news/hdtv-articles/oled-lifespan-doubled.html.
  49. ^ Toshiba and Panasonic double lifespan of OLED, January 25, 2008, Toshiba and Panasonic double OLED life
  50. ^ Cambridge Display Technology, Cambridge Display Technology and Sumation Announce Strong Lifetime Improvements to P-OLED (polymer OLED) Material; Blue P-OLED Materials Hit 10,000 hours Lifetime landmark 1000 cd / m², March 26, 2007. Retrieved on January 3, 2008.
  51. ^ "Eternal OLED. Http://digidelve.com/tech/ageless-oled/. Retrieved on 11/16/2009.
  52. ^ "The OLED sealing process reduces water inlet and increases life." http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/oled-encapsulation.htm.
  53. ^ Ars Technica – OLED and not 3-5 years away
  54. ^ 4D Systems – Active Design Guide OLED Matrix – Page 20 "Image Stitching"
  55. ^ "World's Largest 21-inch OLED for TVs from Samsung." Physorg.com. 04/01/2005. http://www.physorg.com/news2547.html. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  56. ^ Robischon, Noah (09/01/2008). "OLED Samsung 31-inch thinner the largest yet – "AM-OLED. Gizmodo. http://gizmodo.com/342912/samsungs-31+inch-oled-is-biggest-thinnest-yet. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  57. ^ Ricker, Thomas (5/16/2008). "12.1-inch Samsung OLED laptop concept makes us fail." Engadget.com. http://www.engadget.com/2008/05/16/samsungs-12-1-inch-oled-laptop-makes-us-swoon/. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  58. ^ "Samsung: OLED Notebooks in 2010 – Laptop News. TrustedReviews. Http: / / www.trustedreviews.com/notebooks/news/2008/12/03/Samsung–OLED-Notebooks-In-2010/p1. Retrieved 17/08/2009.
  59. ^ A b Takuya Otani, Nikkei Electronics (10/29/2008). [FPDI Samsung] unveils flutter '0.05mm' OLED Panel – Tech-On! ". Techon.nikkeibp.co.jp. Http: / / techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEWS_EN/20081029/160349 /. Retrieved 17/08/2009.
  60. ^ "Inch OLED panel Samsung-40." Hdtvinfo.eu. 2008-10-30. http://www.hdtvinfo.eu/news/hdtv-articles/40-inch-oled-panel-from-samsung.html. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  61. ^ "Samsung introduced the first and largest transparent OLED laptop at CES." http://www.thedesignblog.org/entry/samsung-presents-worlds-first-and-largest-transparent-oled-laptop-at-ces/. Retrieved on 09/01/2010.
  62. ^ "CES: Samsung shows OLED display photos on a card." http://ces.cnet.com/8301-31045_1-10429565-269.html. Retrieved on 09/01/2010.
  63. ^ "MD Community Page: Sony MZ-RH1. Minidisc.org. 2007-02-24. http://www.minidisc.org/part_Sony_MZ-RH1.html. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  64. ^ "Sony Announces 27-inch OLED TV." HDTV Info Europe. 2008-05-29. http://www.hdtvinfo.eu/news/hdtv-articles/sony-announces-a-27-inch-oled-tv.html. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  65. ^ CNET News, Sony to sell OLED TV-11 inches this year, April 12, 2007, retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  66. ^ Engadget, The TV unit Sony XEL-1 OLED: 1,000,000:1 contrast starting December 1, 1901 October 2007, accessed October 1 2007.
  67. ^ Australia IT, Sony Dual screen video, May 28, 2007, retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  68. ^ "Sony Announces New WALKMAN W and X Series." Sony.co.uk. http://www.sony.co.uk/article/new-walkman-mp3-player-x-and-w-series. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  69. De Sony ^ 3.5 and 11-inch OLEDs are just 0.008 and 0.012 cm thick – Engadget.
  70. AV ^ See article (translation of Google from Japanese).
  71. ^ Japanese firms team up on OLED panels, low-power July 10, 2008 AFP
  72. Athowon ^, I (10/04/2008). "Working Sony bendable, foldable OLED screens." ITProPortal.com. Http: / / www.itproportal.com/articles/2008/10/04/sony-working-bendable-folding-oled-screens/. Retrieved 08/17/2009.
  73. ^ "Sony: We are committed to OLED TVs, which display technology is the" next "." Oled-info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/sony-were-committed-oleds-tvs-its-next-display-technology. Retrieved 8/17/2009.
  74. ^ A b "Sony OLED eyes-on 3D TV." Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2010/01/07/sony-oled-3d-tv-eyes-on/. Retrieved on 01/11/2010.
  75. ^ OLLA project, the EU OLLA website, accessed July 28, 2007.
  76. ^ BusinessWire, "GE Demonstrates World's First roll to roll Manufactured Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED), March 11, 2008. Retrieved on March 11, 2008.
  77. ^ GE Global Research blog, "the first global demonstration 'roll to roll processing" OLED ". Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  78. TV ^ cancer treatment article physics.org, accessed August 26, 2009.
  79. ^ "LG Elec unveil 15-inch OLED TV on sale in November. "Reuters.com retrieved on August 29, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssConsumerGoodsAndRetailNews/idUSSEO33673720090830.
  80. ^ "LG 15寸纤薄OLED电视官方图赏. OLEDW.com retrieved on August 30, 2009. http://www.oledw.com/news/200908/1621/.
  81. ^ "OLED mobile phone shipments Sign-Rise Primary eightfold for 2015. Isuppli.com recovered on 09/03/2009. http://www.isuppli.com/News/Pages/OLED-Shipments-for-Primary-Cell-PhoneDisplays-to-Rise-Two- hundred times 2015.aspx.
  82. ^ Electronic Journalism, OLEDs Replacing LCD for mobile phones, April 7, 2005, accessed July 28, 2007.
  83. ^ Michael Kanellos, "Starting creates flexible sheets of light", CNet News.com, December 6, 2007. Retrieved on July 20, 2008.
  84. ^ AP, "New machine prints sheets of light", CNN.com, October 10, 2008. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
  85. ^ "OLED Notebook OQO is a beauty gadget | Light Laboratory | Wired.com." Blog.wired.com. 09/01/2009. Http: / / blog.wired.com/gadgets/2009/01/oqo-oled-notebo.html. Retrieved 17/08/2009.
  86. ^ "Philips Lumiblades." Lumiblade.com. 09/08/2009. http://www.lumiblade.com. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  87. ^ "Sprint to sell high-end AM-OLED Samsung phones." Reuters retrieved on 06/08/2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssConsumerGoodsAndRetailNews/idUSN0651549520090806.
  88. ^ Patent search at www.uspto.gov
  89. ^ OLED-Info.com, Kodak Signs OLED Cross-License Agreement recovered on March 14, 2008.
  90. ^ "ANWELL: increased profits, higher margins going forward." nextinsight.com. http://www.nextinsight.com.sg/content/view/57/55/.
  91. ^ "Chi Mei EL (CMEL)." OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/oled_panel_makers/chi_mei_el_cmel.
  92. ^ "Organic Light Emitting Diodes." Dupont.com. Http: / / www2.dupont.com/Displays/en_US/products_services/oled /.
  93. ^ "GE Global Research makes OLED Breakthrough." Valley.com Tech. Http: / / www.techvalley.org / Pages / News Events _ / News/3-11-2008 Tech Valley (1). Html.
  94. ^ "LG OLED." OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/lg-oled.
  95. ^ "Samsung OLED." OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/samsung-oled.
  96. ^ "Sony OLED." OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/sony-oled.
  97. ^ "Samsung SDI – The world's largest OLED screen." Oled-info.com. Http: / / www.oled-info.com/market_reports/samsung_sdi_the_worlds_largest_oled_display_maker. Retrieved 17/08/2009.
  98. A ^ bc "Frost & Sullivan Recognizes Samsung SDI for Market Leadership in the OLED Display Market | Business Wire | Find Articles at Bnet. Findarticles.com. Http: / / findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_July_17/ai_n27929051. Retrieved on 08/17/2009.
  99. ^ Passive Matrix OLED (PMOLEDs) and AMOLEDs.

Further reading

  • P. Chamorro-Posada, J. Martín-Gil, P. Martín-Ramos, Navas, Gracia LM, Fundamentals of Technology OLED (OLED Technology Fundamentals). University Valladolid, Spain (2008). ISBN 978-84-936644-0-4. Available online, with the permission of the authors, the website: http://www.scribd.com/doc/13325893/Fundamentos-de-la-Tecnologia-OLED
  • Shinar, Joseph (Ed.), Organic Light-Emitting Devices: A Survey. NY: Springer-Verlag (2004). ISBN 0-387-95343-4.
  • Hari Singh Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of luminescence, display materials and devices, Volume 1-3. American Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles (2003). ISBN 1-58883-010-1. Volume 1: Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
  • Hari Singh Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of Organic Electronics and Photonics, Volume 1-3. American Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles (2008). ISBN 1-58883-095-0.

Tanveer Rabiya.



HNK, Warangal, INDIA.


1.NANO Science and Technology Consortium,

Noida, UP.INDIA.

2.PHOTONICS 21 European Technology Platform. EMAIL: munaizag@gmail.com

About the Author

lecturer in physics & electronics dept. of physics & electronics, chaitanya degree & p.g college, kishan pura ,hanamkonda, warangal.A.P.

Categories: Womens Sneakers Tags:
  1. No comments yet.
  1. No trackbacks yet.
You must be logged in to post a comment.